Mechanical engineering professions

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Mechanical engineering professions

Average salary: 55,000 rubles per month

Profession rating

Demand 48% Payability 62% Competition 24% Entry barrier 36% Perspectives 52% Mechanical engineering is a complex of branches of heavy industry, which includes machine-tool building, automotive industry, aviation industry, space engineering, shipbuilding, as well as the development and production of mining, processing equipment, lifting and transport machines and mechanisms. ContentWhat to learnPossible specialties and educational institutionsWhere to workComments

Along with metallurgy, mining and processing industries, mechanical engineering is the basis of the power and defense capability of any state. With the collapse of the USSR, many domestic factories, design bureaus and research institutes temporarily stopped work or closed altogether: new orders ceased to come, funding practically stopped, the demand for specialists dropped sharply. The majority of young people then chose the profession of economist or lawyer, and those few who nevertheless went to mechanical engineering universities did not want to work for a meager salary. At the beginning of the 2000s, the situation changed for the better: factories, research institutes and design bureaus were reorganized into new structures – as a rule, included in the defense industry; state orders appeared, money began to flow for salaries and re-equipment.

What to learn

What subjects should a future plant or design bureau engineer master? In some engineering universities, as early as preparatory courses, applicants are taught to draw. If you are not friends with a pencil and a ruler, if there is no interest in drawing, it is better not even to dream of an engineering degree: even the first year will be beyond your powers – drawing will take up all your time. It is often taught for 2 years. This subject is a headache for many students who entered the mechanical engineering faculties without knowing about the peculiarities of the upcoming study. Here they do not tolerate those who came for the sake of crusts or to save themselves from military service; there is nothing to do here. To successfully study at the Faculty of Engineering, you must also know physics and mathematics – these subjects are also among the major ones. And if we talk about narrower disciplines, then you will study materials science, structural materials, theoretical mechanics, materials science, theory of machines and mechanisms, structural mechanics, thermodynamics and heat engineering, the basics of design and engineering. Senior courses will include subjects such as computer-aided design systems, design and engineering of units, testing of units, manufacturing and assembly technology.

During training, you have to complete numerous term papers and projects, for which the number of drawings in A2 or A1 format can be up to 10, and the number of smaller formats – up to 15–20. In general, great importance is attached to practice in the learning process. There is not so much theory: theoretical mechanics, higher mathematics, physics, strength of materials, structural mechanics, CAD – that’s the whole “gentleman’s set”. All other subjects are almost completely utilitarian: they just give a little theory – and please, right there practical application, real problems, design. For example, a theory on the subject of “Aircraft Design” fits almost into a small university manual. The same applies to heat transfer and thermodynamics, structural analysis, structural mechanics and many other subjects: even in lectures, mostly practical problems are solved. This orientation of training has an undoubted advantage: when a young specialist first gets a job in his specialty, he does not have to learn everything anew.

Mechanical engineering is closely related to instrument making, materials science, metalworking: both students and graduates actively use knowledge in these disciplines. However, unlike instrumentation or, say, radio engineering, mechanical engineering does not tolerate errors and does not allow them to be corrected. The spar of an airplane wing must be made exactly according to the drawing, from a strictly defined material, must precisely fall into the tolerance system: deviations from the calculated values ​​can be too expensive. And it will not work to remake this spar “on the knee” – you will have to send the parts for remelting, repeat the entire production cycle. In radio engineering, everything is much simpler: there a deviation in the values ​​of passive components (resistors, capacitors, coils) up to 15% is allowed. Yes, and in the assembled device, you can often correct a lot: it is not difficult to remove this or that element from the circuit and replace it with another. Moreover, all radio components have long been unified and are mass-produced.

Possible specialties and educational institutions

Russian engineering universities train bachelors in the following areas:

mechanical engineering;technological machines and equipment;applied mechanics;automation of technological processes and production;design and technological support of machine-building industries;mechatronics and robotics.

In addition, there are specialist and graduate programs. It should be borne in mind that a profession related to mechanical engineering can also be obtained in a secondary specialized educational institution. They train technicians to service machines, but we are now talking about the profession of an engineer, which can only be obtained in specialized universities, the number of which in Russia is quite large: in almost every constituent entity of the Russian Federation there is at least one engineering university. In more detail:

In Siberia and the Urals, machine-building universities are focused, as a rule, on the extractive and manufacturing industries. Extraction of minerals, smelting and manufacturing of metal products require a huge number of the most complex mechanisms and specialists in their operation. The latter have to understand machine tools, mining, processing and smelting equipment, motors and drives. Examples of universities:Novosibirsk State Technical University;Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin.In the Central Federal District, mechanical engineering is directly related to the design and operation of the machines themselves. These are aircraft construction, space technology, engine construction, automobile construction, machine tool construction. Examples of universities:Moscow State Technological University “Stankin”;Moscow Polytechnic University.In the Northwestern and Far Eastern Federal Districts, specialists in the field of shipbuilding, heavy and light automobile construction, and engine construction are most in demand. Universities:St. Petersburg State Marine Technical University;Far Eastern State Technical Fisheries University.In the Southern and Volga Federal Districts, mechanical engineering is most in demand in the field of agriculture (production of seeding and harvesting equipment). Examples of educational institutions:Don State Technical University;Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University R. E. Alekseeva.

Having chosen a mechanical engineering specialty, be prepared for a difficult study. The totality of subjects and the knowledge gained on them gives the result to the course towards the third: the perception of the world as a whole and many individual phenomena in it changes dramatically. The reason is that mechanical engineering is a purely practical area. Design develops nonlinearity of thinking – it’s not for nothing that the designers Tupolev, Mil, Kamov, Korolev were highly extraordinary people. Much of the know-how in the industry is, at first glance, pretty simple. But thinking of them is not so easy. How many cases were there in Soviet and world mechanical engineering when the most important problem was solved intuitively, in five minutes, appeared in the mind of the creator instantly – and only then was it adjusted to the theoretical calculations! But before you can learn to see the problem as a whole and solve it intuitively, figuring out the answer in advance, you need to go through the thorns of mechanics, physics, chemistry, resistance to materials, machine parts, and with junior students, teachers are oh so strict. Mechanical engineering is a certain way of thinking and a special approach to solving problems, which you can get used to only after years of intense study.

Where to work

You need to work where there is a desire to apply strength and intelligence. On the one hand, a direct path is open for a graduate to a research institute, a design bureau, or a factory: after graduation, yesterday’s student who has passed all the internships is an almost ready specialist who does not require further education. On the other hand, a profession is a profession, but the range of acquired skills and knowledge is so great that a graduate can successfully work in other industries and areas. Studied heat engineering, assembly technology, testing? Welcome to the company for the operation, sale and installation of heating and refrigeration equipment. Do you know the technology of manufacturing metal products and rolled products? Be sure that you will be gladly hired by a designer or technologist in a metal products manufacturing company. Thus, mechanical engineering is a very broad specialty and opens up great professional prospects.

Dodano: 1 May 2020
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